Like anything to do with grammar, gerunds require a bit of detective work to recognize them. The problem is that present participles also end with the letters ing. In addition to being able to recognize gerunds, you should be able to tell the difference between a gerund participle and a present participle. As with present participles, we sometimes double a final consonant when we form a gerund. For example, the sound of run. In general, these are the rules for when a final consonant must be doubled to form a gerund: gerunds kill two birds with one stone because they look like verbs but behave like nouns. They all end in “-ing”, but not all “-ing” words are gerunds. Both end with verbs, but these verbs are not just verbs. They are gerunds. Think for a moment about what these verbs do – they don`t describe action in these sentences as verbs usually do.
That`s because gerunds don`t describe an action – they act like nouns. Are you ready to take the official Gerunds quiz now? Take it here! A gerund phrase is an expression that contains the gerund, its objects and modifiers. Since they are derived from verbs, gerunds can take objects or be modified by adverbs. Just like noun phrases, gerund phrases are treated as nouns in sentences. In the phrase I like to collect action figures carefully, the gerund phrase carefully collecting action figures is the direct object (sentence). Although the term may seem foreign, gerund is a common part of the language that most of us use every day, whether we know it or not. Here we take a detailed look at gerunds and provide you with some examples of gerunds so that you feel comfortable using them when you write and can recognize them when you see them. If the sentence does not contain modal verbs, two interconnected verbs mean that the second is either an infinitive or a gerund – for example: you can turn any verb (except a modal verb) into a gerund. Here is a list of gerunds formed from a variety of verbs: As mentioned earlier, gerunds look like verbs but behave like nouns. Similarly, gerund phrases behave like noun phrases. In practice, this means that gerunds and gerund sentences can be the subject of sentences/sentences or can be the complement of the subject connected to the subject by an auxiliary verb (auxiliary verb).
Let`s look at examples of each of these ideas: gerund – n. An English noun formed from a verb by adding -ing pop quiz time! What is the sound in the header above? A gerund phrase, like a gerund, acts like a noun within a sentence. Watch how these gerund phrases play this role: The gerund phrase also functions as a subject or object in sentences. The first sentence, with the gerund, is correct. “I suggested going to dinner.” What for? You can only use one word after the verb “suggest.” It is difficult for English learners to know whether to use a gerund or an infinitive after a verb. Many people confuse gerundives with present participle sentences because they take the “-ing” form in writing. This is one of the many writing problems that even native speakers encounter. The whole clause here is: “Joe is cleaning up. You can remove the theme from the device (I was surprised to do chores.) As you can see, infinitive gerunds are similar, but they are not exactly the same. In a sentence where the infinitive acts as a noun, you can easily exchange a gerund and it will always make sense: the gerunds are one of the verbs with nominal properties, an adjective function or an adverbial function. As a reminder, a gerund ends in “-ing” and has the role of a noun. Tip number two: When talking about an activity, you`re usually using a gerund.
For example, “I quit smoking.” You can describe many activities using “go” before a gerund. “Let`s go shopping” or “We skied”. Gerunds are formed by adding “-ing” to the basic form of the verb to become an English noun. Some consider a gerund to be an “action name.” Let`s take the word “how.” You can say “I like to run” or “I like to run”. Both sentences have the same meaning. You can use a similar or similar infinitive. Now, let`s try to “enjoy”. We can say, “I like to run.” But we can`t say, “I like to run.” What for? Only a gerund can follow the verb “enjoy”. Tip number one: After a preposition, you almost always find a gerund. For example: “She`s afraid to fly.” In this sentence, “of” is the preposition and “fly” is the gerund. You can`t say, “She`s afraid to fly.” An infinitive cannot be the subject of a preposition, only a gerund can.
You might say, “She`s afraid of flying,” but in that sentence, the preposition “of” is gone. A gerund can also be the subject of a prepositional sentence. Preposition objects always work with prepositions in sentences – for example: Let`s go back for a moment to the definition of a gerund. Keep in mind that gerunds are words that are formed with verbs but function like nouns. Present participles do not function as nouns. Instead, they act as modifiers or complete progressive verbs. To find gerunds in sentences, simply search for a verb + ing used as a noun. It`s as simple as that.
If you`re still a little confused, remember that gerunds are used as names. This means that gerundives can only perform the same tasks as names: acting as subjects, adding topics, and objects. Gerunds do not act as modifiers and are not used as verbs. But that`s not what makes them gerunds. To be a gerund, a verb must act as a noun in its sentence. Verbs in the present participle are not gerund if they describe the action in a sentence, like verbs in these: But you can`t always go the other way – especially if the gerund is the subject of a preposition: “I blocked a few hours to ride a bike this Sunday.” You can also use a non-possessive noun or pronoun (e.g., me, candace) before the mouth. This will help put the actor above the plot. To turn a verb into a gerund, all you have to do is add -ing to the basic form of a verb. The basic form is the form of a verb that you find when you search for a verb in our dictionary. There are a few things to keep in mind when creating a gerund: Romance languages have no case inflections and are used in an adjectival function. In French grammar, a gerund with stem form and suffix -ant is formed. You will also encounter gerunds that complement sentence subjects – for example: gerunds have exactly the same spelling as the present participles of verbs.
For example, the gerund and present participles of go. However, gerunds and participles perform different functions in sentences. The biggest difference between the two is that gerunds are used as nouns while present participles are not used. Instead, present participles are used to form continuous verb forms and are used in participle sentences. Unlike gerunds, participle sentences are used as adjectives rather than nouns. For example, in the phrase Feeling confident she sang passionately, the participle phrase Feeling Confident changes the pronoun her. There is no quick and easy way to learn gerunds and infinitives. It takes years of practice and familiarity with the English language. The next time you read or listen to a VOA Learning English story, pay attention to the use of gerunds and infinitives.
Over time, you will begin to hear the right combination of verbs. If your sentence has no object, use a gerund after the verb in active sentences, for example: A gerund is a verb in its present participle form (radical verb + “ing”) that acts as a noun in a sentence. So, what is a gerund? Read on to learn more about its features and how to use it in a sentence. I will also show you many German examples to avoid grammatical errors. A gerund is a form of verb that ends in -ing and is used as a noun. As you may know, a verb is a word that refers to actions or states of being, and a noun is a word we use to refer to people, places, things, and ideas. A gerund is like a mixture of verbs and nouns. It sounds like a verb, but it behaves like a noun. For example, the word swimming is an example of gerund. We can use the word swimming in a sentence as a noun to refer to the act of movement in the water, as in swimming is fun. When used in sentences, gerunds are treated as singular nouns in the third person (like he, she and her). Here are two examples of sentences that contain gerunds: Let`s look at a few more sentences.
Read each sentence carefully and see if you can tell if the word in bold is a gerund or a participle. As you can see in these examples, Gerund verbs are in the present participle. This means that they are the root verb + “ing”: And here are some sentences that show how phrasal verbs and gerunds can work together: Just like nouns and noun phrases, gerunds and gerund phrases can be used as objects in sentences/phrases. They can be used both as direct objects and as preposition objects: gerunds have different uses and styles in other languages. A Latin gerund is formed with inflections -andum, -endum and noun. The best way to identify a rumor is to remember that its role is a verbal noun or phrase. Meanwhile, the present participle form acts as a verbal sentence. Be careful not to confuse progressive time with a gerund. The device must occupy either the position of a subject or an object in the sentence. A gerund sentence can be difficult to spot in a larger sentence. For example, it`s your turn. In the comments section, write a sentence that uses a verb followed by a gerund or infinitive.
We respond with feedback on your usage. The possessive form of the pronoun “my” is an adjective form that describes or modifies the word “victim”. The indirect object of the sentence is “you”, while “this gift” is the direct object of the gerund.